What is Operating System? An operating system (OS) is software that acts as an interface between computer hardware components and the user. In this way, you can call it a medium through which the user and different parts of the computer can interact with each other.
Operating system is also called system software. Most people also call it “OS” by its short name. It is also called the heart of the computer, the operating system is a system software, which acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware.
I explain this sentence directly, whenever you run the computer, then this OS only gives you the means to use the computer. Like when you listen to a song, click on a .mp3 file, double click on a word document, open three or four windows and sit down, write something on the keyboard, and then file something. You save in computer etc. So you know all this about what happens without an operating system.
What is Operating System – What is Operating System
Operating System is a software with the help of which you run your computer. That’s why whenever you buy a new computer, you first get Windows 8 or Windows 10 loaded in it from the shopkeeper. And after that you take the computer or your laptop to your home. Otherwise, without Operating System, sometimes yourCan’t even turn on the computer.
This is also a question that why it is called System Software more often. If you want to run User Software means Application Software in Computer, then they can never run without OS.
This OS helps in using Computer Hardware properly. The operating system mainly does the same thing like takes some input from the keyboard, processes the instruction, and sends the output to the computer screen.
You see this operating system only when you turn on the computer and then when you turn off the computer. You keep many software like Game, MS word, Adobe Reader, VLC Media Player, Photoshop and many more inside the computer, to run them, a program or big software is required which we call Operating System.
The name of the OS used in Mobile is Android, about which everyone knows. You must have come to know what is Operating System, so let’s know about some of its work.
examples of operating systems
Different operating systems are used for different tasks. Here you have shared the operating system list, which most people like to use.
Google’s Android OS
Linux Operating System
These are all examples of very large operating systems. Although there are not many different names in them, but most of the people know them by these names.
operating system functions
Although the computer does a lot of work, but first of all, when you turn on the computer, then the operating system is first loaded in the main memory ie RAM and after that it allocates all the hardware that the user software needs.
What is Operating System
Different functions of OS have been given below, know about them in more detail.
- Memory Management
Memory management means managing primary and secondary memory. Main memory means RAM is a very large array of bytes.
Means there are many small slots in the memory where we can keep some data. Where there is an address of each slot. Main memory is the fastest running memory which CPU direct uses. Because all the programs that the CPU runs are in the main memory only.
Operating System does all these things.
Which part of Main Memory will be used, which will not be used, how much will be there, how much will not be there.
In multiprocessing, the OS decides which process will be given memory and how much will be given to whom.
When the process asks for memory, the memory is given to it by the OS (Process means a Task or a small task that is done inside the computer).
When the process finishes its work, the OS takes back its memory.
- Processor Management (Process Scheduling)
When it comes to multi programming environment, the OS decides which process will get the processor and which will not and for how long.
This process is called Process Scheduling. The Operating System gets all this work done.
The Operating System also sees that the Processor is empty or doing some work, or is Free and whether the Process has finished its work or not. If you want, you can see in Task Manager that how many tasks are running and how many are not. The program that gets all these things done is called Traffic Controller.
Allocates CPU to the process.
When the work of one process is over, then it puts the processor in another work, and frees the processor if there is no work.
- Device Management
Drivers are used in your computer, you must know that such as Sound Driver, Bluetooth Driver, Graphics Driver, WiFi Driver, but they help in running different Input/Output Devices, but these Drivers OS runs.
So let’s see what else this OS does.
Tracks all computer devices and the name of the program that gets this task done is I/O Controller.
As different processes need devices to perform some tasks, the OS also does the work of device allocation. Let’s take an example, a process has to do some task like playing video, taking out print, then both these tasks will be done with the help of Output device Monitor, printer. So when to give these two devices to the process, the OS does this work.
When the work of the process is over, it deallocates the device back.
- File Management
Many directories are kept organized in one file. Because with this we can easily find the data. So let’s know what is the work of OS in File Management.
Keeps information, location and status organized. All this sees the file system.
Who will get which resource?
Resource De-allocate is to be done.
When you turn on your computer, it asks you for that password, this means that the OS prevents your system from Unauthenticated Access. This keeps your computer safe. And you cannot open some programs without password.
- Viewing System Performance
It looks at the performance of the computer and improves the system. The OS keeps a record of how much time it takes to provide a service.
- Error reporting
If there are many errors in the system, then the OS detects and recovers them.
- Creating synergy between software and user
Tasks are assigned to the compiler, interpreter and assembler. Connects different software with the user, so that the user can use the software properly.
Provides communication between the user and the system.
The Operating System is stored in the BIOS. Everything else makes the application user-friendly as well.
Operating System Features
Now let us know what are the features of the operating system…
An Operating System is a collection of many programs, which run other programs.
It controls all Input/Output Devices.
Operating system is responsible for running all the application software.
The work of Process Scheduling means allocating and deallocating Process.
Informs about the errors and dangers happening in the system.
Establishes good coordination between User and Computer Programs.
By now you all must have known that what does the Operating System do (Function of Operating System in Hindi), so let us now know how many types of OS are there.
Types of Operating System – Types of Operating System
Technology is changing day by day and everything is changing with it, so is the use of Operating System.
Yoga is increasing in every field like railways, research, satellite, industry, so do you know how many types of operating systems are there.
Batch Operating System
Simple Batch Operating System
Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
network operating system
Multiprocessor Operating System
Distributed Operating System
Time-Sharing Operating System
Real-Time Operating System
- Batch Processing Operating System
Batch processing operating systems were introduced only to solve the problems of earlier times. If we talk about earlier systems, then it used to take more setup time.
At the same time, this much set up time has been reduced in this batch processing systems where jobs are processed in batches. Whereas this type of operating system is called batch processing operating system in Hindi.
Whatever similar jobs are there in this, they are submitted to the CPU for processing and they are run simultaneously.
The main function of Batch Processing System is to execute the jobs automatically in batch. The most important thing that works in this work is ‘Batch Monitor’ which is located in the low-end of the main memory.
i) Simple Batch System
This is the oldest system in which there was no direct interaction between the user and the computer. In this system, the user had to bring a storage unit to process the task or job and submit it to the computer operator.
In this, many jobs were given to the computer in a batch or line. Within a few days or within a few months, that job was processed and an output device had an Output Store. This system used to process jobs in batch, hence its name was also called batch mode operating system.
ii) Multiprogramming Batch Systems
In this operating system, a job was picked up from the memory and it was executed. The OS which keeps on processing a job, if the job needs I/O during the same time, then the OS gives the second job to the CPU and I/O to the first one, because of this the CPU is always busy.
The number of jobs that remain in memory are always less than the number of jobs in the disk. If many jobs remain in the line, then the operating system decides which job will be processed first. The CPU never remains idle in this OS.
Time Sharing system is also a part of Multiprogramming system. Response time is very less in Time Sharing System but CPU usage is more in Multi programming.
There is no direct interaction between User and Computer.
The job that comes first is processed first, so the user had to wait longer.
- Network Operating System
Its abbreviation is NOS, the full form of NOS is “Network Operating System”. This network operating system provides its services to those computers which are connected to a network.
If given examples of these, then it comes in shared file access, shared applications, and printing capabilities.
NOS is a type of software that allows multiple computers to communicate together, to share files and also with other hardware devices.
Earlier Microsoft Windows and Apple operating systems were not designed for single computer usage and network usage. But as computer networks gradually started increasing and their use also started increasing, and these types of operating systems also started developing.
There are mainly two types of a NOS (Network Operating System in hindi): –
Peer-to-peer (P2P) OS, which is installed on each computer. Whereas the second one is a client-server model, in which one machine is the server and the other has client software installed.
Types of Network Operating System
Talking about the type of Network Operating System, they are mainly of two basic types, peer-to-peer NOS and client/server NOS:
- Peer-to-peer network operating systems allows users to share network resources that are saved in a common, accessible network location. In this architecture, all devices are treated equally in terms of functionality.
Peer-to-peer works best in small to medium LANs, plus they are very cheap to set up.
- Client/server network operating systems provides users to access all the resources through a server. In its architecture, all the functions and applications are unified under a single file server which can be executed through individual client actions, irrespective of any physical location.
Client/server is very difficult to install, while it requires a lot of technical maintenance. Moreover, it also costs more.
Its biggest advantage is that the network is controlled centrally, so that any changes can be made easily, while additional technology can also be incorporated.
We can represent a network operating system on the basis of a basic OS that runs a network device, such as a router or firewall.
In a multiprocessor system, many processors use a common physical memory. Computing power is very fast. All these processors work under an operating system. Here below are some of its advantages
The speed is very high because Multiprocessor is used.
If many Tasks are processed simultaneously, therefore the System Throughput increases here. Which means, how many job processes can happen in a second.
In this OS, the task is divided into sub-tasks, and each sub-task is given to a different processor, especially because of this, a task gets completed in a very short time.
- Distributed Operating System
The only purpose of using Distributed Operating System is that this world has powerful OS and microprocessors have become very cheap, as well as there is a lot of improvement in Communication Technology.
Due to this advancement, now Distributed OS has been created, whose cost is very cheap and keeps far away computers through the network. Which is a great achievement in itself.
All the resources that are far away can be used easily, which resources do not remain empty.
Processing is fast with these.
The load on the host machine is less because the load is more distributed.
- Time Sharing Operating System
In this, some time is provided by the OS to complete each task correctly, so that each task can be completed correctly. Wherein in this every user uses a single system by which the CPU is given time. This type of system is also called multitasking system.
At the same time, whatever task is done in it, it can be either from a single user or it can also be from a multi user.
The amount of time it takes to complete each task is called quantum. At the same time, only after completing each task, the OS starts the next task.
Let us know about the advantages of time-sharing operating system.
In this, the OS is given an equal chance to complete each task.
Duplicacy of software in this is not an easy task. Which is equal to no.
CPU idle time can be easily reduced in this.
Let us know about the disadvantages of time-sharing operating system.
The issue of Reliability is seen more in this.
In this, the security and integrity of everything has to be taken care of.
The issue of Data Communication is a common problem in this.
Examples of time-sharing operating systems are: – Unix
- Real-Time Operating System
This is the most advance operating system, which does real-time process, which means that while leaving Missile, Railway ticket booking, satellite, if there is a delay of even a second in all these, then this operating system does not remain idle at all.
These are of two types,
- Hard Real-Time Operating System
This is the operating system that within the time given to complete the task, the work gets completed within the same time.
- Soft Real-Time
In Soft Real-Time, the time restriction is slightly less, what happens if a Task is running and another Task comes at the same time, then the new Task is given the first priority. This was some information on Types Of Operating system in Hindi. Before this you have known what is Operating System in Hindi.
What is Client Operating System?
Computer desktop is a standalone computer processing unit. They are designed for people to perform automation tasks. A desktop computer is very unique because it does not require any networks or external components to operate.
This client operating system is mostly used in computer desktops or portable devices. This operating system is typically different from centralized servers because it supports only one user.
Smartphones and small computer devices use client operating systems. This operating system manages the components of the device, which includes printers, monitors, and cameras. Each computer typically has a specific operating system.
These client operating systems provide multiprocessing power, that too at a very minimal cost. Client Operating Systems include Windows®, Linux®, Mac® and Android®.
Each operating system is designed to perform some specific function on specific hardware. This hardware compatibility is the most primary consideration on the basis of which an operating system is selected for client computers.
For example, Windows® is currently the most widely used client operating system.